General Recommendation No. Initial reports submitted under article 18 of the Convention should cover the situation up to the date of submission. Thereafter, reports should be submitted at least every four years after the first report was due and should include obstacles encountered in implementing the Convention fully and the measures adopted to overcome such obstacles. Bearing in mind that the Committee had been faced with difficulties in its work because some initial reports of States parties under article 18 of the Convention did not reflect adequately the information available in the State party concerned in accordance with the guidelines. Considering that the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women has considered 34 reports from States parties since .
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During each monthly cycle, the lining of the womb uterus gets thicker in readiness for pregnancy. A menstrual period occurs when a pregnancy has not taken place. The lining of the uterus is shed and the loss is 50 per cent blood, which can vary from bright red to dark brown. After each period, the whole cycle starts again. The range of causes includes infection and hormonal changes. If you suffer from ongoing bleeding problems, see your local doctor for a full assessment to make sure there is no underlying disorder causing the problem.
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Periods differ from woman to woman and from month to month. A period can last from three to 10 days, and occur every three to six weeks.
This pattern can vary with age, stress, diet, exercise and inherited factors. The flow can also vary. Around 40ml two tablespoons of fluid is lost, which the body quickly replaces. It is common for women to suffer some cramping pain with their period.
This is felt just below the navel and may spread into the legs or lower back. It can be felt as a dull ache or sharp twinge. During a period it is also common to feel bloated and heavy, get more pimples, feel tense and emotional, and have sore breasts and greasier hair. In many women, the cause of the irregular bleeding is not found. For others, the cause depends on their age and the site of bleeding. Once pregnancy has been ruled out, some of the known causes include:. For some women, medical history and physical examination are enough for the doctor to be able to diagnose the cause of the irregular bleeding.
For other women, a range of tests may be offered including:. This has been produced in consultation with and approved by:. Androgen deficiency in women and its treatment is controversial, and more research is needed.
IVF in-vitro-fertilization and ICSI intracytoplasmic sperm injection are assisted reproductive treatment ART procedures in which fertilisation of an egg occurs outside the body.
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Bacterial vaginosis BV is caused by an imbalance of the bacteria normally present in the vagina. Bladder prolapse is when the bladder bulges into the vagina. Breast implants are inserted under the skin to create larger breasts. Content on this website is provided for information purposes only.
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Reproductive system - female. Home Reproductive system - female. Vaginal bleeding - irregular. Actions for this Listen Print. Summary Read the full fact sheet. On this .
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A range of causes In many women, the cause of the irregular bleeding is not found. Once pregnancy has been ruled out, some of the known causes include: Hormonal changes Contraception such as the pill, injection or IUD intrauterine device Infection in the vagina or uterus Fibroids or polyps inside the uterus Trauma to the vagina Some medications such as anticoagulants or anti-epilepsy drugs Underlying health problems such as bleeding or thyroid disorders Cancer in the lining of the uterus, the cervix or vagina rare.
Diagnosis methods For some women, medical history and physical examination are enough for the doctor to be able to diagnose the cause of the irregular bleeding.
Treatment options Treatment depends on the cause but may include: Anti-inflammatory drugs Antibiotics Change of contraception Hormone therapy Anti-bleeding agents such as tranexamic acid Surgery to remove fibroids, polyps or cancers Treatment for any underlying health problem. Taking care of yourself at home If you have irregular bleeding, some general home care suggestions include: Get plenty of sleep Eat a well-balanced diet Do some gentle exercise Keep a diary of your symptoms to show your doctor.
Pain relief suggestions If you suffer from pain with your bleeding, suggestions include: Rest. Curl your knees up to your chest and lie on your side. Place a warm pack, such as a hot water bottle or wheat bag, over your abdomen. Take a warm bath. Wear loose clothing. Rub or massage where it hurts. Take painkillers such as paracetamol, but avoid aspirin.
Try relaxation techniques. Consider increasing your intake of magnesium or vitamin B1. In many women, the cause of the bleeding is not found.
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